IoT stack


Modern Internet technologies provide connection to the network of any household appliance or industrial equipment. An IoT stack is a simple chain that consists of sensors, a dispensing system, a wireless connection, and a special IoT device with an application. Such technologies transcend any apartment or office into a smart house.

What is an IoT stack?

IoT stack is a general concept that unites all technologies for controlling household appliances connected via the Internet to simplify working with them and increase the level of security. The IoT stack allows servicing household appliances or other equipment, through communication between transmitters and executing devices, which practically eliminates the need for human intervention.

Different devices or whole objects can easily exchange data according to a predetermined algorithm via Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, BLE, Ethernet, RFID, ZigBee, LPWAN communication channels.

IoT stack technology levels

IoT stack technology consists of the following basic components, programs, objects, and applications:

·         A physical object is a lighting fixture, home appliance, or industrial equipment.

·         A set of sensors.

·         Gateway for data transmission.

·         Performer devise.

·         Information processing center.

So, there are 5 levels of IoT stack technology in total, which include the following necessary components of the system.

IoT devices. 

This includes a wide variety of household appliances with a set of sensors for analyzing changes in the operating mode of the equipment. IoT devices include motion sensors, temperature, humidity, and other detecting systems. 

A sensor is a sensitive element that recognizes a physical phenomenon and converts it into a command for the system, which provides a lightning-fast response in the form of an automatic change in operating mode, or an alarm signal for the controlling operator.

The gateway for data transmission can be any wireless Internet communication channel that is open for public or private use.

The main component of the IoT Stack is the executive device. Its quality can be either a personal computer or mobile device, or any automated mechanism capable of converting the received signal into a specific action, according to a predetermined program.

One executive device can be responsible for both a single device and collect signals from all devices, which is especially useful for dispatching a smart home system.

Multifunctional IoT stack platforms are gradually becoming a competitive area, and many IT companies around the world annually release dozens of new software with great opportunities.

An example of using the IoT stack in practice

Lighting devices installed in a private house are equipped with sensors that capture the slightest fluctuations in the level of insolation. 

As a result, in cloudy weather or early sunset, the sensor detects the level of natural light, transmits a signal via Wi-Fi or GPS to an executive device. The software provides the signal and sends data to the mechanism, which allows you to turn on the lamp in time.

Raspberry Pi

One of the oldest and most versatile platforms. Operating in the IoT market for almost 10 years. The developers have set standards for competitors that not every company can achieve.


A complete system that is considered the implementation of both sensors and executive devices. and using Arduino’s protocols. The technology is used in large production facilities to create automation lines. 

IoT gateway

A collective concept that half implies both a public and a special channel for transmitting data from a device to an executive device. Gateways are used with the use of WiFi, Ethernet, or other data transmission channels with an increased level of security.

LoRaWAN gateway

Collection software. Storage and transmission of data received from the device via wireless communication. Each user can manage such a program, who has downloaded the corresponding application on a PC and also logged in with a password.


One of the most commonly used IoT standards. At the heart of data transmission is a router that connects not over a local, but over a dedicated network – a specially designed ZigBee Gateway.

This software is often used by utilities to dispatch smart counters for energy resources.


Every modern computer user is familiar with this wireless Internet technology. Data is transmitted through a router, which is installed in the network coverage area and handled by a specific provider.


The Bluetooth system is also being modernized every year. BLE is a special modification of this data transmission channel, developed for the control protocol of smart home systems. This technology features extremely low energy consumption and makes it easy to connect to any IP network.

M2M network

In some cases, it is not necessary to interfere with the operation of the devices, since the high level of automation makes it possible to self-adjust the operating mode of the equipment. This is achieved through the M2M technology, which provides communication between two devices. The machines exchange commands and signals, which ensures a break-down operation.

How to choose the necessary IoT stack technology?

Before choosing a ready-made solution, or ordering the development of new program software, the user of the software will answer three main questions, which will allow him to accurately identify personal needs in one or another equipment:

·         Sensors – which parameters should be identified by the readers.

·         What volume of information is necessary for a reader?

·         Data transfer rate.

·         The need for personal protection of the information transmission channel.

·         It was necessary to store the received information in the cloud.

·         General terms of reference for optimizing the operation of a device or household appliance.

·         Devices and applications through which the user can get access to the read and transmitted information.

·         The need to develop the user interface of the system.

Thus, when contacting the developers, you need to have a full-fledged completed questionnaire in your pocket. The developer, in turn, in the presence of typical features, according to already developed algorithms, can suggest how to adjust the programs familiar to hospital users, or start creating new software from scratch.

Programmers and engineers are always encouraged to create and implement cutting-edge, decentralized, and scalable IoT solutions to ensure the use of the most modern technologies. Such techniques allow to read and process the received information from almost any stationary or mobile device, providing a long level of confidentiality and security.